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Fig 1.1

Crop: Rice

Scientific name : Oryza sativa L.,
Common / Local Name : Dhaan / Bhath

 

 


Introduction :

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Rice is the staple food crop of Goa. The crop is cultivated over an area of 42,973 ha with a production of 1,55,818 mt annually. The average productivity of the crop is about 3,399 kg/ha. The crop is cultivated in three different topographical situations i.e. rainfed uplands (Morod), rainfed low lands (Kher) and coastal saline lands (Khazans). The crop is being cultivated both during kharif (Sod) and rabi (Vaigon) seasons, with an area of approximately 67 % and 33%, respectively. The average productivity of rabi season is relatively higher (4052 kg/ha) as compared to kharif season (3781 kg/ha). Average land holding size in Goa is relatively less (95% less than 1 ha) and that too fragmented. Further, the socio-economic situations prevailing in the State and non-availability and high cost of labour, lack of mechanization, threshing and processing facilities including marketing infrastructure are threatening the cultivation of this major food crop.


Land preparation :

Ploughing should start with first shower of monsoon to a depth of 15 cm with the help of power tiller or mould board plough. Apply well decomposed FYM (10 MT) after the first ploughing. This operation is to be completed atleast 15 days before sowing of the seed. Green manures (finely chopped) like Glyricidia (grown on bunds /fences), Dhaincha etc. or any biomass from major weeds on uplands like Eupatorium be incorporated as per availability. Proper leveling and bunding should be ensured for better water and soil conservation.


Sowing :

Direct seeding either by dibbling of seeds in dry soil at 20 X 15 cm spacing or plough sole placement before onset of regular monsoon is recommended.

Pre-germinated seeds can be broadcasted on a level surface after puddling and maintain a thin film of water.

In a transplanted crop, the seedlings need to be planted at the age of 21-25 days on a puddle soil with 3-4 seedlings/ hill at a spacing of 20 x 10 cm ensuring atleast 50 hills / sq.m. Shallow transplanting favours more tillering and consequently higher yield.


Varieties :

Rainfed shallow lowland ecology

 

Category

Variety

Days to maturity

Grain type

Avg Yield (t/ha)

Seed rate

Photos

Long duration

Pusa-44

135

Medium slender

6.5 – 7.0

50 kg/ha

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Medium duration

Karjat-3

 

 

120-125

 

Medium slender

6.0 – 6.5

50 kg/ha

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Naveen

 

120-125

 

Medium slender

6.0 – 6.5

50 kg/ha

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Aromatic rice varieties

PB-1121

130 - 135

Extra long grains

4.5 – 5.0

40 kg/ha

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Irrigated ecology

 

1

Naveen

120-125

Medium slender

7.0 – 7.5

50 kg/ha

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Coastal Saline Soils

 

1

CSR-27

120

Medium slender

3.5 – 4.0

60 kg/ha

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2

CSR-36

135

Long slender

4.0 – 4.5

60 kg/ha

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Nutrient Management :

Nutrient Deficiency and Its Management

Nitrogen

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Deficiency symptoms                    

Management

  • Yellowing of older leaves first in V shape
  • Whole plants yellowish green
  • In case of severe deficiency leaves become light green and chlorotic at the tip
  • leaves die under severe N stress
  • N deficiency often occurs at critical growth stages such as tillering and panicle initiation when the demand for N is large.

 

  • Divide N fertilizer recommendations larger than 60 kg N/ha into 2-3 (wet-season crop) or 3-4 (dry-season crop) split applications.
  • Use more splits, especially with long-duration varieties and in the dry season when crop yield potential is greater.
  • Apply top dressing of nitrogen when values of SPAD and leaf color chart goes below 35 and 4, respectively.

 

Phosphorus

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Deficiency symptoms                    

Management

  • Deficiency symptoms first appear on older leaves, they show characteristic reddish purple color and bluish green color.
  • Premature leaf fall.
  • Deficiency of phosphorus reduces tillering in rice
  • Develops necrotic area on the leaf petiole.
  • Before transplanting 60 kg P2O5 is advocated as a basal dose.
  • For immediate management of P deficiency in rice water soluble fertilizers like single superphosphate should be applied based on severity of deficiency.
  • Growing of green manures or application of FYM @ 15-20 t/ha repeatedly for several years may meet out the phosphorus requirement In case of acute  P deficiency as in hills, application of Rock Phosphate @ 5q/ha once in three years may take care of phosphorus nutrition of the organic rice in addition to application of FYM. 

 

Potassium

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Deficiency symptoms                    

Management

  • Deficiency symptoms of potassium deficiency first occurs on older leaves as dark green plants with yellowish brown leaf margin
  • Deficiency symptoms appear in inverted V shape
  • Necrotic spots appear on the tip of older leaves
  • To avoid potassium deficiency, apply 60 kg K2O before transplanting or direct seeding of rice and mix it well. Soil application of 25 % excess of recommended dose of potassium.
  • Foliar spray of 1 % KCl (Potassium chloride) solution.

 

Sulphur
Deficiency symptoms

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Deficiency symptoms                    

Management

  • Sulphur deficiency symptoms are often wrongly diagnosed as nitrogen deficiency symptoms. The major difference between these two is that nitrogen deficiency symptoms are first visible on older leaves whereas that of sulphur first appears on younger  leaves.
  • Yellowing of whole plants in later stages
  • Leaf necrosis may occur in later stages of development
  • Application of S containing fertilizers at the time of transplanting or direct seeding @ 30 kg S / ha
  • Foliar spray of 0.5% S solution.

Zinc
Deficiency symptoms

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Deficiency symptoms                    

Management

  • Zinc deficiency is not common in acid soils of coastal region but it can be observed in saline situations.
  • Zinc deficiency symptom in rice is known as ‘Khaira disease’, brown blotches and streaks appear on lower leaves
  • Chlorotic midribs, particularly near the leaf base of younger leaves.
  • Dusty brown spots on upper leaves of stunted plants.
  • Apply zinc fertilizer ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ha at the time of transplanting.
  • Foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 when deficiency symptoms start to become visible.

 

Iron

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Deficiency symptoms                    

Management

  • Iron deficiency is not common in acid soils of coastal region but it can be observed in saline situations. It is also prevalent in direct seeded rice or aerobic rice
  • Interveinal yellowing and chlorosis is observed on young and emerging leaves.
  • Whole leaves become chlorotic and appears pale yellow.
  • Entire plant becomes chlorotic and dies if deficiency is very severe.
  • Apply FeSO4 (about 30 kg Fe ha-1) in rows or broadcast .
  • Foliar applications of 2-3% solution of FeSO4 or Fe chelates.

 

Boron

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Deficiency symptoms                    

Management

  • Deficiency symptoms of boron first appear on younger leaves.
  • Boron deficient rice plants may even fail to produce panicles due to its role associated with pollen grain and reproduction.  Plants unable to produce panicles if affected by B deficiency at the panicle formation stage.
  • White and rolled leaf tips of young and emerging leaves.
  • Death of apical points.
  • Soil applications of Borax @ 15 Kg/ha.
  • Foliar spray of 0.2 % Boric acid.
  • Apply B in soluble forms (borax) for rapid treatment of B deficiency (0.5-3 kg B ha-1), broadcast and incorporate before planting, top dressed, or as foliar spray during vegetative rice growth

 

FYM @ 10 MT / ha or any other available organic / green manure can be incorporated 2-3 weeks before sowing.

Apply Rock Phosphate @ 45 kg/ha atleast one week before sowing both as a source of phosphorus and as soil conditioner

Recommended fertilizers:-100:50:50 kg NPK / ha.

Apply all phosphate (P2 O5), 50% nitrogen (N) and 50% potash (K20) as basal dose at the time of sowing or transplanting. After 25-30 days, apply 25% nitrogen as first top dressing. Later, in another 20-25 days, apply balance 25% nitrogen and 50% potash as second top dressing. Weed the field and drain water wherever possible before top dressing.

Type of fertilizer and its quantity can be chosen from any of the combination given below. Use of combination of straight fertilizers is economical, with better crop response.

Sr. No.

Type of Fertilizer

Total Qty
(kg /ha)

Basal dose
(kg /ha)

Top dressing

Remarks
        I II  

 

1)

a) Urea
b) Rock Phosphate
c)M.O.P

217
175
80

109
175
40

54
---
---

54
---
40

 

 

2)

Urea
D.A.P.
M.O.P

174
109
80

66
109
40

54
---
---

54
---
40

 

 

3)

Urea
N.P.K. / 10-26-26

174
192

66
192

54
---

54
---

Addition of M.O.P. at the rate 40 kg/ha as 2nd  top dressing is advisable owing to better response for the nutrient in recent years

 

4)

Urea
N.P.K. 19-19-19

109
263

---
263

55
---

54
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5)

Urea
N.P.K. 15-15-15

109
333

---
333

55
---

54
---

 

6)

Urea
N.P. 20-20-20
M.O.P.

109
250
83

---
250
43

55
---
---

54
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40

             

 


Water Management :

Although rice is a water loving plant, excess water will not be of much use for the crop as lack of drainage will reduce the yield of the crop. Proper leveling and bunding should be ensured for better water and soil conservation. A good puddling by churning the soil with water will favour better water management and inturn good crop growth.


Weed Management :

Weed infestation is a chronic problem in rice cultivation. The loss caused by weeds ranges from 30–40% including quality deterioration of the grain. The first 35– 40 days of the crop is the critical period for weed competition.

The weeds can be effectively controlled by using Cono weeder (low cost manually operated interculture implement) in line sown crops with availability of thin film of water in the field.

Herbicide formulations like Butachlor 5 G @ 20 kg / ha or Benthiocarb 20 G can be mixed with water and blanket spray with high volume sprayer three days after sowing is recommended. Granular herbicides are convenient to apply as it eliminates the use of spray pump.

Alternatively, the selective herbicides like Benthiocarb 50 EC @ 3.0 litres / ha or Butachlor 50 EC @ 3.0 litres/ha or Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 3.0 litres/ha or Anilophos 30 EC @ 1.0 litre / ha can be used. Benthiocarb is preferred as it also has a post emergent effect on weeds upto 1-2 leaf stage besides killing germinating weed seeds.

Alternatively, mix the above formulation with 80-90 kg of fine sand and broadcast evenly in the field. For use of granular herbicides application, drain the water from the field.

In low lands, where there is standing water, broadcast Benthiocarb 10 G granules, a week after direct sowing or within 8 days of transplanting. Maintain 3-5 cm of water level in the field after granular application so that soil is under water but leaves are above water. Do not allow water to flow from one field to another. This controls a wide range of weeds for 30-35 days after application. However, if Cyperus and broad leaved weeds are present, spray 2,4, D @ 2.5 kg./ hectare about three weeks after transplanting or 4 weeks after sowing.


Insect Pest Management :

Rice stem borer: Scirpophaga incertulas

Symptoms of damage

Larva feeds inside the stem causing drying of the central shoot is called ‘dead heart’ in young plant.

Drying of the whole panicle is called ‘white ear’ in older plants.

image 1 Fig 1.4 : Dead heart

image 1Fig 1.5 : White ear

 

 

 

 

 

 

Management

Clipping the tip of the seedlings prior to transplantation to eliminate egg masses.

Collection and destruction of moths using light traps.

Avoid close planting and continuous water stagnation.

Release the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum on twice @ 5 cc/ha.

Spray Monocrotophos 36 SL @1000 ml/ha or Profenophos 50 EC @1000 ml/ha .

 

Swarming caterpillar: Spodoptera mauritia

Symptoms of damage

Larvae cut the seedlings in large scale.

Severe infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field.

They feed gregariously and march from field to field.

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Management

Deep ploughing the field in summer exposes the larvae and pupae for predation by birds.

Kerosene oil may be poured into the stagnant water in the bunded fields (2 L kerosene per hectare).

Spray of chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2ml/ litre of water, 2.5 litres/ha or quinalphos 25 EC @, 2ml/ lites of water, 2.0 litres/ha or triazophos 40 EC @ 0.5 ml/litre of water, 1.0 litres/ha.

Dusting of chlorpyriphos 1.5 % D@ 30 kg/ha controls this pest.

 

Rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

Symptoms of damage

The larvae roll the leaf in longitudinally and remain inside.

In a severely infested field the whole crop gives a sickly appearance with white patches.

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Management

Removal of grass from field bunds.

Avoid excessive nitrogenous fertilizers.

Light traps to attract and kill moths.

Spray NSKE 5 % or carbaryl 50 WP 1 Kg or chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ ha.

 

Rice case worm Nymphula depunctalis

Symptoms of damage

Caterpillars feed on green tissues of the leaves and leave become whitish papery.

Tubular cases around the tillers by cutting the apical portion of leaves.

Floating of tubular cases on the water.

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Management

Drain the water.

Spray monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha

 


Disease Management :

Blast

Causal organism: Pyricularia grisea; Magnaporthe grisea (perfect stage)

Blast is generally considered as the principal disease of rice because of its wide distribution and its destructiveness under favorable conditions. Rice seedlings or plants at the tillering stage are often completely killed. Heavy infections on the panicles are often detrimental to rice yields. Yield losses ranged from 30-70% depending upon the stage of infection.

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Symptoms of damage

• The fungus attacks all aerial parts of plant at all the stages of growth, although leaves and the neck of the panicle are more commonly affected.

• The fungus produces spots or lesions on leaves, nodes and different parts of panicles and the grain.

• The leaf spots are typically elliptical with more or less spindle shaped with reddish brown or dark brown margin. The centre of the spot is usually grey or whitish. Numerous spots on a leaf cause killing and drying up of the leaf sheath.

• When the node is infected, irregular black areas can be noticed in the nodes and the affected nodes may break up and all the plant parts above the infected nodes may die (node blast).

• In case of neck infection the stem below the ear head gets infection and turns into brown to black spots which may cover the entire stem. In early neck infection, grain filling doesn’t occur and the panicle remains erect like a dead heart caused by stem borer.

• In the late infection, partial grain filling occurs, small brown to black spots also may be noticed on glumes of the heavily infected panicle.

Management

• Grow resistant varieties (IR20, Jaya, IR64).

• Remove and destroy affected straw, stubbles and weed hosts.

  • Treat the seeds with Captan/Thiram/Carbendazim/Carboxin/Tricyclazole @ 2.0 g/kg.

• Treat the seeds with biocontrol agents like Pseudomonas fluorescens @10 g/kg.

• Avoid closer spacing of seedlings in the field.

• Spray the crops with Ediphenphos (1ml/litre)/ Carbendazin(1g/litre)/ Tricyclazole (2g/litre)/ Iprobenphos (2ml/litre)/ Thiophanate methyl. Four to five sprays at 10 days interval may be needed for complete control. One at nursey, two during tillering stage and one to two during panicle emergence stage.

 

Brown spot (Sesame leaf spot)

Causal organism: Helminthosporium oryzae (Syn: Drechslera oryzae): Cochliobolus miyabeanus (perfect stage)

The disease has a worldwide distribution and it has been reported in all rice growing countries. In India this disease was one of the principal causes of the famous Bengal famine of 1942-43.

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Symptoms of damage

• In most conspicuous symptoms of the disease are on leaves and the glumes. Symptoms may also appear on the coleoptile, leaf sheath, panicle branches and more rarely on roots of the young seedlings and stem.

• Typical symptom is the development of numerous, dark brown, oval, about the size and shape of sesame seeds. They are relatively uniform and fairly evenly distributed over the leaf surface.

• The spots are brown with grey or whitish centre when fully developed. Young or undeveloped spots are small and circular and may appear as dark brown or purplish brown dots.

• In severe cases these spots may coalesce and cover the entire leaf. Black or dark brown spots appear on the glumes which contain large number of conidiophores and conidia of the fungus.

• Coleoptiles may become infected from diseased seeds cause seedling mortality.

Management

• As the disease is seed borne, avoid seeds obtained from an infected crop for sowing.

• Treat the seeds with Thiram/ Captan @ 4g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @10 g/kg.

• Spray the crop with Mancozeb (2g/litre)/ Ediphenphos (1ml/litre) as 500 ml/ Captafol (625g/litre).

 

Sheath Rot

Causal organism: Sarocladium oryzae (Syn: Acrocylindrium oryzae)

image 1 Fig 1.17

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms of damage

• The initial symptoms are noticed as rotting only on the uppermost leaf sheath enclosing young panicles.

• The lesions start as oblong or somewhat irregular spots, with brown margins and grey centres or they may be grayish brown throughout. They enlarge and often coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath.

• The young panicles remain within the sheath or only partially emerge. The panicles rot and abundant whitish powdery fungal growth is formed inside the leaf sheath.

Management

• Apply recommended dose of fertilizers and adapt optimum spacing.

• Spray Carbendazin/ Ediphenphos/ Mancozeb/ Chlorothalanil at boot leaf stage and 15 days later.

 

Sheath Blight

Causal organism: Rhizoctonia solani; Thanatephorus cucumeris (perfect stage)

The fungus affects the crop from tillering to heading stage. Sheath blight has become increasing importance in recent years in most rice growing regions because more fertilizers are being used and also because of the HYV which have large numbers of tillers, resulting increased humidity of the plant layer.

image 1 Fig 1.18 : Source : IRRI

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms of damage

• The initial symptoms are noticed on leaf sheath near water level. Oval/elliptical or irregular greenish-grey spots develop on the leaf sheaths. The centre of the spot becomes grayish-white with a brown margin.

• Under humid conditions, the mycelium of the fungus grows over the surface of the leaf sheaths and can spread a considerable distance within 24 hours.

• Under favorable conditions, the symptoms are formed also on the upper leaf sheaths and on the leaf blades.

• The presence of several large spots on a leaf sheath usually causes the death of the whole leaf and in severe cases all the leaves of a plant may be blighted in this way.

Management

• Avoid excess doses of N-fertilizers.

• Adopt optimum spacing in the field.

• Avoid flow of irrigation water from infected field to healthy field.

• Deep ploughing in summer and burning of stubbles.

• Treat the seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens @10 g/kg of seeds.

• Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens to soil @2.5 kg /ha after 30 days of transplanting (2.5 kg + 50 kg FYM/sand)

• Treat the seeds with Thiram 2g/kg.

 

False smut

Causal organism: Ustilaginoidea virens; Claviceps oryzae-sativa (perfect stage)

The fungus affects the crop from tillering to heading stage. Sheath blight has become increasing importance in recent years in most rice growing regions because more fertilizers are being used and also because of the HYV which have large numbers of tillers, resulting increased humidity of the plant layer.

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image 1 Fig 1.21

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms of damage

• The initial symptoms are noticed on leaf sheath near water level. Oval/elliptical or irregular greenish-grey spots develop on the leaf sheaths. The centre of the spot becomes grayish-white with a brown margin.

• Under humid conditions, the mycelium of the fungus grows over the surface of the leaf sheaths and can spread a considerable distance within 24 hours.

• Under favorable conditions, the symptoms are formed also on the upper leaf sheaths and on the leaf blades.

• The presence of several large spots on a leaf sheath usually causes the death of the whole leaf and in severe cases all the leaves of a plant may be blighted in this way.

Management

• Avoid excess doses of N-fertilizers.

• Adopt optimum spacing in the field.

• Avoid flow of irrigation water from infected field to healthy field.

• Deep ploughing in summer and burning of stubbles.

• Treat the seeds with Pseudomonas fluorescens @10 g/kg of seeds.

• Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens to soil @2.5 kg /ha after 30 days of transplanting (2.5 kg + 50 kg FYM/sand)

• Treat the seeds with Thiram 2g/kg.

 

Bakanae disease

Causal organism: : Fusarium moniliforme; Gibberella fujikuroi (perfect stage)

The fungus affects the crop from tillering to heading stage. Sheath blight has become increasing importance in recent years in most rice growing regions because more fertilizers are being used and also because of the HYV which have large numbers of tillers, resulting increased humidity of the plant layer.

image 1 Fig 1.22

image 1Fig 1.23

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms of damage

• Infected seedlings in the seedbed are up to several inches taller than normal plants and are thin and yellowish green.

• Such affected seedlings are scattered throughout the field and severely diseased seedlings die before transplanting and those that survive may die after transplanting.

• In the main field affected plants have tall, lanky tillers and have longer internodes and aerial adventitious roots from the nodes above the ground level.

• The plants are killed before earhead formation, or occasionally infected plants survive until maturity but bear only empty panicles.

Management

  • Treat the seeds with Captan/Thiram @ 2g/kg.

 

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB)

Causal organism: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

Bacterial leaf blight occurs all over the country in the exotic and indigenous rice varieties and is considered a several menace to rice production in India. In recent years severe epidemics of this disease have occurred in non-traditional rice growing areas of Punjab and Haryana.

image 1 Fig 1.24

image 1Fig 1.25

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms of damage

• The disease appears in two phases viz. wilt or ‘kresek’ phase and leaf blight phase.

• Kresek phase: This is the most destructive phase of the disease which results from early systemic infection. It commonly occurs with in 1-3 weeks after transplantation of the crop when infected leaves become greyish green and begin to fold up and roll along the midrib. Kresek results either in the death of whole plant or wilting of only a few leaves.

• Leaf blight phase: It is the most predominant form of the disease occurring between tillering and heading stages of the crop. The earliest symptom of the blight phase is the appearance of dull green water soaked or yellowish spots on the leaf towards the tip or margin, leading to tip and marginal drying. The infection soon extends along one or both margins. As the disease progresses, several lesions coalesce to form straw-brown large lesions or blighted portions with wavy margins. Small droplets of pale amber coloured bacterial ooze from affected areas form minute encrustations on the leaf.

Management

  • Use disease free seeds for sowing.
  • Treat the seeds with hot water (50-54°C) for 30 minutes.
  • Treat the seeds by soaking in streptocycline (3g/litre) for 8 hours.
  • Spray streptocycline 500 ppm + copper oxychloride (1g/litre) after 30 days of transplanting and repeating after 15 days interval.
  • Grow resistant varieties.
  • Avoid using excessive N-fertilizers.
  • Drain the standing water in the field regularly.

Harvesting :

Harvesting paddy at the right stage is vital for getting high quality grains. It also helps in proper storage of grains. Harvest the crop, when 5-10 % of the grains at the bottom of the panicle are still to dry but the rest of the grains on the panicle is fully matured.

Vaibhav sickle developed by B.S. K.K.V, Dapoli is an improved implement for harvesting. The sickle helps to cut paddy near ground level, thereby minimizing the incidence of paddy stem borer, besides improving the work efficiency with a saving of five man days / ha for rice harvest.

Special care need to be taken for shedding varieties to avoid grain losses. The harvested produce need to be threshed immediately so as to avoid damage to grain during staking, that also enables better quality for seed purpose.

Machineries like harvesters / threshers / combine are found to be efficient in saving labour.


Post harvesting management:

Gradual drying preferably in the morning and evening hours avoiding direct exposure of grain to the sun during noon hours is essential. This prevents formation of minute cracks on the grain which leads to breakage during milling and avoids grain infestation in storage. Heaping Paddy during noon time and spreading only during morning / evening is suggested for uniform drying. Bring down the moisture content of the grain by sun drying to less than 12–13% for better milling and storage of the produce.

Store paddy in proper storage structures after adequate drying. Take precautions to avoid infestation by the stored grain insects and the fungal infections.

Use of locally available organic insect repellants like neem, lingad, tirphal, etc, so as to prevent damage from insect and rats are also suggested.

Milling:

Modern rubberized mills or paddy rollers are effective to get higher milling efficiency. With parboiling, the milling recovery can further be improved.


Input availability

Input availability

Address/Contact details

Seeds

ICAR RC- Old Goa, Directorate of Agriculture- Tonca Panaji-Goa, Goa Bhagayatdar Society,Ponda-Goa.

Fertilizers

For detailed list kindly click here

Pesticides

For detailed list kindly click here

Machineries

Goa Tractors Mapusa-Goa, Varsha Associates Corlim-Goa