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Crop: Ginger

Scientific name : Zingiber officinale
Common / Local Name :

February Posted by


Soil & Season:

Soil:  This can be grown on variety of soils, including the well-drained lateritic soils of Goa.  But the sandy loam is the best soil type for its cultivation.

Season:  Ginger can be grown both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. The best time for planting turmeric is the period between May and June.  In case of planting in May in the absence of pre-monsoon rains, irrigation needs to be given to avoid the drying of seed rhizomes and facilitate sprouting of rhizomes.

 


Land preparation :

Prepare the land by ploughing and harrowing to attain fine tilth.  Apply entire quantity of FYM at the time of ploughing to mix it well with soil.  Before preparation of beds or ridges and furrows, apply entire dose of Phosphorous to mix it well in soil.

 


Sowing :

Seed rhizomes are required @ 20 quintals per hectare. Planting of seed rhizomes can be done in two ways or methods depending on type of soil and field situation, as mentioned below:

  1. Raised flat bed method:  Prepare raised flat beds of convenient size of width varying from 2 – 3 of convenient length.   Plant seed rhizomes by making cup-pits at a spacing of 30 cm either way and cover them.
  2. Ridge and Furrow method: Prepare ridges and furrows 45 cm apart with help of adjustable ridger mounted on tractor, so that height of ridge is about 25 to 30 cm. Plant seed rhizomes on one side of the ridge at the top at a spacing of 20 cm by opening the cup-pits.  This method is suitable for high rainfall areas to overcome rhizome rot problem, especially when turmeric is cultivated as inter-crop in coconut gardens.

 

Seed rhizomes need to be dip-treated in solution containing 2.5 g of Blitox and 2g of Bavistin per litre of water to overcome rhizome rot problem in field. Plant rhizomes between 6-8 cm deep in the cup-pits in both bed and, ridge & furrow method.

Apply N and K in four split doses before 120 days (at 30, 60, 90 & 120 days) after planting. Fertilizer has to be covered by earthing up after each application.

 


Varieties :

Varada, Mahima, Rio de geneiro ( Seed Rhizomes available at IISR, Calicut) 


Manures and fertilizers :

Manures and fertilizers

  1. Farm Yard Manure or Compost: About 30 tons per hectare.
  2.  Application of neem cake (2 tonnes/ha) in the pits while planting will help to overcome the soft rot problem in the field.

3.   Fertilizers:      

N         :           100 kg/ha.
P         :             55 kg/ha.
K         :             75 kg/ha.

Apply N and K in four split doses before 120 days (at 30, 60, 90 & 120 days) after planting. Avoid high intensity rainy period for fertilizer application. Fertilizer has to be covered by earthing up after each application.

 


Disease Management :

Rhizome rot/ soft rot
Causal organism: Pythium aphanidermatum, P. myriotylum, Fusarium solani

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Symptoms

  • Both pre and post-emergence rot are noticed leading to varying degrees of crop losses. Young sprouts are highly prone to infection leading to soft rot.
  • Disease is generally noticed during early phase of the crop growth especially when it is tender, even though infection can occur later.
  • Pseudostem of affected clumps show water soaked patches at the base and rotting gradually spreads to interior portion.
  • Root rot also caused considerable damage. When the plants are affected, margins of lower leaves become yellowish and later the whole lamina turns yellowish.
  • The affected pseudostem show rotting and come off easily with gentle pull. The infection gradually spreads with in clump and later to adjacent clumps through soil water.

Management

  • Select healthy seed.
  • Raise the crop on raised beds or on ridges furrows methods for better drainage.
  • Treat the seeds with Mancozeb (4g/kg) at the time of planting.
  • Adopt soil solarization for a month before planting.
  • Follow seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum and soil application of Trichoderma mixed with neem cake @ 2t/ha.

Yellows of ginger
Causal organism: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. zingiberi
Symptoms

  • The plant is susceptible at all stages of growth. Infected plants exhibit foliar yellowing starting from the base to upwards.
  • It is a typical vascular wilt causing blockage of vessels by exhibiting vascular browning. Unlike soft rot the affected pseudostem do not come off easily with a gently pull.

Management

  • Select healthy seed.
  • Follow phyto-sanitation methods.
  • Treat the seeds with Mancozeb/ Carbendazim (4g/kg) at the time of planting.
  • Follow seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum and soil application of Trichoderma mixed with neem cake @ 2t/ha.

Bacterial wilt
Causal organism: Ralstonia solanacearum

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Symptoms

  • Dark black water soaked patches appear at the base of the pseudostems. The foliage of such affected clumps exhibit drooping symptoms.
  • Subsequently as the disease advances, the leaves of the affected clumps wilt, exhibit bronze yellow colour and finally rot.

Management

  • Select healthy seeds.
  • Follow crop rotation with rice.
  • Eradicate the affected clumps and drench the spots and surrounding plants with copper oxychloride.
  • Follow soil solarization for a month before planting.                                          

Leaf spot
Causal organism: Phyllosticta zingiberi
Symptoms

  • Disease starts as minute water soaked spot with a chlorotic zone which later expands gradually.
  • The adjacent lesions and spots merge causing large necrotic patches resulting in blighting of the leaves. From a distance the disease appears as though the foliage is burnt.

Management

  • Spray Mancozeb (0.3%) or Carbendazim (0.2%) after the disease appearance.

Harvesting :

Crop will be ready for harvest in about 8 –9 months after planting depending on the variety, soil and moisture status, when leaves turn yellow and start withering. If the crop is for green ginger, it has to be harvested after 6 months after planting. Rhizomes have to be washed to remove soil and dirt and air dried in sun for a day.  On an average 30 -40 tonnes of green rhizome yield can be expected from one hectare of planted area depending on the purpose it sis harvested. For dry ginger outer skin is removed and rhizomes are dried in sun for 6-8 days. About 20-25 % of dry ginger yield can be expected from green ginger. 

 


Input availability

Input availability

Address/Contact details

Seeds

 

Fertilizers

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Pesticides

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Machineries